Selected Reading List: Purple Loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria)

Anderson, N.O. and P. D. Ascher. 1993. Male and female fertility of loosestrife (Lythrum) cultivars. Journal American Society Horticultural Science 118(6):851-858. (describes how the 26 cultivars of L. salicaria or L. virgatum, once thought to be sterile, will cross-pollinate with the wild L. salicaria to produce viable seeds).

Blossey, B. 1995. Impact of Galerucella pusilla and G. calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on field populations of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Proceedings of the Eighth International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds, pp. 27-31. 

Blossey, B. and M. Schat. 1997. Performance of Galerucella calmariensis (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on different North American populations of purple loosestrife. Environmental Entomology 26(2):439-445.

 Blossey, B. and D. Schroeder. 1995. Host specificity of three potential biological weed control agents attacking flowers and seeds of Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife). Biological Control 5:47-53.

Blossey, B., D. Schroeder, S.D. Hight, and R.A. Malecki. 1994. Host specificity and environmental impact of two leaf beetles (Galerucella calmariensis and G. pusilla) for biological control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Weed Science 42:134-140. 

Blossey B., D. Schroeder, S.D. Hight, and R.A. Malecki. 1994. Host specificity and environmental impact of the weevil Hylobius transversovittatus, a biological control agent of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria). Weed Science 42:128-133.

DeVine, John. Alien Invasion: America's Battle with Non-native Animals and Plants. 1998. National Geographic Society. (A book for the layman, outlining the ctirical problems presented by invasive species, some control efforts, and many carelessly conceived control attempts, which credits Blossey with a "model" bio-control program) 

Harris, P. 1988. The Selection of Effective Agents for the Biological Control of Weeds. Canadian Entomology. 105: 1495-1503. 

Kok, L.T., T.J. McAvoy, R.A. Malecki, S.D. Hight, J.J. Drea, and J.R. Coulson. 1992. Host specificity tests of Galerucella calmariensis (L.) and G. pusilla (Duft) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), potential biological control agents of purple loosestrife, Lythrum salicaria L. (Lythraceae). Biological Control 2:282-290 . 

Louda, SM, Kendall, D, Connor, J, Simberloff, D. 1997. Ecological Effects of an Insect introduced for the Biological Control of Weeds. Science 277:1088-1090 

Elizabeth McGowan. fall 1998. Winged Warriors. Plant and Garden News, Brooklyn Bot Garden vol. 13, No. 3. (a short summary of the promise and pitfalls of bio-control, written in lay terms) 

Malecki, R.A., B. Blossey, S.D. Hight, D. Schroeder, L.T. Kok, and J.R. Coulson. 1993. Biological Control of purple loosestrife. BioScience 43(10):680-686. (This is probably the best reference on this topic) 

Thompson, D.Q, R.L. Stuckey, and E.B. Thompson. 1987. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Research Report No. 2. 55 pp. (excellent background on the nature of the problem) 

Welling, C.H. and R.L. Becker. 1993. Reduction of purple loosestrife establishment in Minnesota wetlands. Wildlife Society Bulletin 21(1):56-64.